Vos, T. et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 386, 743–800 (2015).
World Health Organization Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/254610 (World Health Organization, 2017).
Vos, T. et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388, 1545–1602 (2016).
Jorm, A. F., Patten, S. B., Brugha, T. S. & Mojtabai, R. Has increased provision of treatment reduced the prevalence of common mental disorders? Review of the evidence from four countries. World Psychiatry 16, 90–99 (2017).
Cenat, J. M. et al. Prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychological distress among populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 295, 113599 (2021).
Vadivel, R. et al. Mental health in the post-COVID-19 era: challenges and the way forward. Gen. Psychiatry 34, e100424 (2021).
World Health Organization Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241506021 (World Health Organization, 2013).
Samele, C. Increasing momentum in prevention of mental illness and mental health promotion across Europe. BJPsych Int. 13, 22–23 (2016).
Lo Moro, G., Soneson, E., Jones, P. B. & Galante, J. Establishing a theory-based multi-level approach for primary prevention of mental disorders in young people. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, 9445 (2020).
Russ, T. C. et al. Association between psychological distress and mortality: individual participant pooled analysis of 10 prospective cohort studies. BMJ 345, e4933 (2012).
Burke, A., Lam, C. N., Stussman, B. & Yang, H. Prevalence and patterns of use of mantra, mindfulness and spiritual meditation among adults in the United States. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 17, 316 (2017).
Simonsson, O., Fisher, S. & Martin, M. Awareness and experience of mindfulness in Britain. Sociol. Res. Online 26, 833–852 (2020).
Dib, J., Comer, J., Wootten, A. & Buhagiar, K. State of Mind 2021 Report (Smiling Mind, 2021).
Jacobs, E. Are free meditation apps the answer for stressed staff? Financial Times (2020).
Barnes, N., Hattan, P., Black, D. S. & Schuman-Olivier, Z. An examination of mindfulness-based programs in US medical schools. Mindfulness 8, 489–494 (2017).
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Mental Wellbeing at Work (NG212): NICE guideline https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng212 (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2022).
World Health Organization. Doing What Matters in Times of Stress https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240003927 (World Health Organization, 2020).
Kabat-Zinn, J. Full Catastrophe Living, Revised Edition: How to Cope with Stress, Pain and Illness Using Mindfulness Meditation 2 edn (Piatkus, 2013).
Crane, R. S. et al. What defines mindfulness-based programs? The warp and the weft. Psychol. Med. 47, 990–999 (2017).
Galante, J. et al. Mindfulness-based programmes for mental health promotion in adults in non-clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. PLoS Med. 18, e1003481 (2021).
Keng, S. L., Smoski, M. J. & Robins, C. J. Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 31, 1041–1056 (2011).
Goldberg, S. B., Sun, S. & Davidson, R. J. The empirical status of mindfulness based interventions: a systematic review of 44 meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 17, 108–130 (2020).
De Vibe, M., Bjørndal, A., Tipton, E., Hammerstrøm, K. & Kowalski, K. Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for improving health, quality of life, and social functioning in adults. Campbell Syst. Rev. 8, 1–127 (2012).
Davidson, R. J. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and the prevention of depressive relapse: measures, mechanisms, and mediators. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 547–548 (2016).
Ospina, M. B. et al. Meditation practices for health: state of the research. Evid. Rep. Technol. Assess. 155, 1–263 (2007).
Rojiani, R., Santoyo, J. F., Rahrig, H., Roth, H. D. & Britton, W. B. Women benefit more than men in response to college-based meditation training. Front. Psychol. 8, 551 (2017).
Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., Thoresen, C. & Plante, T. G. The moderation of mindfulness-based stress reduction effects by trait mindfulness: results from a randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Psychol. 67, 267–277 (2011).
Tang, R. & Braver, T. S. Towards an individual differences perspective in mindfulness training research: theoretical and empirical considerations. Front. Psychol. 11, 818 (2020).
Burton, H., Sagoo, G. S., Pharoah, P. D. P. & Zimmern, R. L. Time to revisit Geoffrey Rose: strategies for prevention in the genomic era? Ital. J. Public Health 9, e8665–8661 (2012).
Schellekens, M. P. J. et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction added to care as usual for lung cancer patients and/or their partners: a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Psychooncology 26, 2118–2126 (2017).
Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A. & Oh, D. The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 78, 169–183 (2010).
Roos, C. R., Bowen, S. & Witkiewitz, K. Baseline patterns of substance use disorder severity and depression and anxiety symptoms moderate the efficacy of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 85, 1041–1051 (2017).
Khoury, B. et al. Mindfulness-based therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 33, 763–771 (2013).
Kuyken, W. et al. Efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in prevention of depressive relapse: an individual patient data meta-analysis from randomized trials. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 565–574 (2016).
Ter Avest, M. J. et al. Added value of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a tree-based qualitative interaction analysis. Behav. Res. Ther. 122, 103467 (2019).
Fiocco, A. J., Mallya, S., Farzaneh, M. & Koszycki, D. Exploring the benefits of mindfulness training in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled study using a mixed methods approach. Mindfulness 10, 737–748 (2018).
Whitehead, M. A typology of actions to tackle social inequalities in health. J Epidemiol. Community Health 61, 473–478 (2007).
Vonderlin, R., Biermann, M., Bohus, M. & Lyssenko, L. Mindfulness-based programs in the workplace: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Mindfulness 11, 1579–1598 (2020).
Galante, J. et al. A mindfulness-based intervention to increase resilience to stress in university students (the Mindful Student Study): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Lancet Public Health 3, e72–e81 (2018).
De Vibe, M. et al. Mindfulness training for stress management: a randomised controlled study of medical and psychology students. BMC Med. Educ. 13, 107 (2013).
Dawson, A. F. et al. Mindfulness-based interventions for university students: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Appl. Psychol. Health Well Being 12, 384–410 (2020).
Dunning, D. et al. The effects of mindfulness-based interventions on cognition and mental health in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled rrials. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 60, 244–258 (2019).
Dunning, D. et al. Do mindfulness-based programmes improve the cognitive skills, behaviour and mental health of children and adolescents? An updated meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Evid Based Ment. Health 25, 135–142 (2022).
Nyklicek, I. & Irrmischer, M. For whom does mindfulness-based stress reduction work? Moderating effects of personality. Mindfulness 8, 1106–1116 (2017).
Greeson, J. M. et al. Decreased symptoms of depression after mindfulness-based stress reduction: potential moderating effects of religiosity, spirituality, trait mindfulness, sex, and age. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 21, 166–174 (2015).
Ebert, D. D. et al. Does Internet-based guided-self-help for depression cause harm? An individual participant data meta-analysis on deterioration rates and its moderators in randomized controlled trials. Psychol. Med. 46, 2679–2693 (2016).
Russell, L. et al. Relevance of mindfulness practices for culturally and linguistically diverse cancer populations. Psychooncology 28, 2250–2252 (2019).
Rau, H. K. & Williams, P. G. Dispositional mindfulness: a critical review of construct validation research. Person. Individ. Differ. 93, 32–43 (2016).
Goldberg, S. B. et al. What can we learn from randomized clinical trials about the construct validity of self-report measures of mindfulness? A meta-analysis. Mindfulness 10, 775–785 (2019).
Grossman, P. & Van Dam, N. T. Mindfulness, by any other name…: trials and tribulations of sati in western psychology and science. Contemp. Buddhism 12, 219–239 (2011).
Quaglia, J. T., Braun, S. E., Freeman, S. P., McDaniel, M. A. & Brown, K. W. Meta-analytic evidence for effects of mindfulness training on dimensions of self-reported dispositional mindfulness. Psychol. Assess. 28, 803–818 (2016).
Baer, R., Gu, J., Cavanagh, K. & Strauss, C. Differential sensitivity of mindfulness questionnaires to change with treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol. Assess. 31, 1247–1263 (2019).
Gawrysiak, M. J. The many facets of mindfulness and the prediction of change following mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). J. Clin. Psychol. 74, 523–535 (2018).
Riley, R. D., Tierney, J. F. & Stewart, L. A. Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis: a Handbook for Healthcare Research (Wiley, 2021).
Hingorani, A. D. et al. Prognosis research strategy (PROGRESS) 4: stratified medicine research. BMJ 346, e5793 (2013).
Ioannidis, J. Next-generation systematic reviews: prospective meta-analysis, individual-level data, networks and umbrella reviews. Br. J. Sports Med. 51, 1456–1458 (2017).
Tierney, J. F., Fisher, D. J., Burdett, S., Stewart, L. A. & Parmar, M. K. B. Comparison of aggregate and individual participant data approaches to meta-analysis of randomised trials: an observational study. PLoS Med. 17, e1003019 (2020).
Higgins, J. P. T. et al. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 6.1. www.training.cochrane.org/handbook (Cochrane, 2020).
Tudur Smith, C. et al. Individual participant data meta-analyses compared with meta-analyses based on aggregate data. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9, MR000007 (2016).
Riley, R. D., Lambert, P. C. & Abo-Zaid, G. Meta-analysis of individual participant data: rationale, conduct, and reporting. BMJ 340, c221 (2010).
Oxman, A. D., Clarke, M. J. & Stewart, L. A. From science to practice: meta-analyses using individual patient data are needed. JAMA 274, 845–846 (1995).
Vieten, C. & Astin, J. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention during pregnancy on prenatal stress and mood: results of a pilot study. Arch. Womens Ment. Health 11, 67–74 (2008).
Phang, C. K., Mukhtar, F., Ibrahim, N., Keng, S. L. & Mohd Sidik, S. Effects of a brief mindfulness-based intervention program for stress management among medical students: the Mindful-Gym randomized controlled study. Adv. Health Sci. Educ. Theory Pract. 20, 1115–1134 (2015).
Aeamla-Or, N. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Stress, Depression, Self-Esteem and Mindfulness in Thai Nursing Students: a Randomised Controlled Trial. PhD thesis, Univ. Newcastle (2015).
Kral, T. R. A. et al. Impact of short- and long-term mindfulness meditation training on amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli. Neuroimage 181, 301–313 (2018).
MacKinnon, A. L. et al. Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in pregnancy on psychological distress and gestational age: outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Mindfulness 12, 1173–1184 (2021).
Siebelink, N. M. et al. A randomised controlled trial (MindChamp) of a mindfulness-based intervention for children with ADHD and their parents. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 63, 165–177 (2022).
Cohen, S. & Williamson, G. M. in The Social Psychology of Health (eds Spacapan S. & Oskamp S.) (Sage, 1988).
New Hampshire Department of Administrative Services Perceived Stress Scale https://www.das.nh.gov/wellness/docs/percieved%20stress%20scale.pdf (2016).
Brown, K. W. & Kasser, T. Are psychological and ecological well-being compatible? The role of values, mindfulness, and lifestyle. Soc. Indic. Res. 74, 349–368 (2005).
van Dijk, I. et al. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of clinical clerkship students: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Acad. Med. 92, 1012–1021 (2017).
Cohen, J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences 2nd edn (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988).
Kazis, L. E., Anderson, J. J. & Meenan, R. F. Effect sizes for interpreting changes in health status. Med. Care 27, S178–S189 (1989).
Britton, W. B., Lindahl, J. R., Cooper, D. J., Canby, N. K. & Palitsky, R. Defining and measuring meditation-related adverse effects in mindfulness-based programs. Clin. Psychol. Sci. 9, 1185–1204 (2021).
Montero-Marin, J. et al. Teachers ‘finding peace in a frantic world’: an experimental study of self-taught and instructor-led mindfulness program formats on acceptability, effectiveness, and mechanisms. J. Educ. Psychol. 113, 1689–1708 (2021).
Perez, S. Meditation and mindfulness apps continue their surge amid pandemic TechCrunch https://techcrunch.com/2020/05/28/meditation-and-mindfulness-apps-continue-their-surge-amid-pandemic/ (2020).
Gal, E., Stefan, S. & Cristea, I. A. The efficacy of mindfulness meditation apps in enhancing users’ well-being and mental health related outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J. Affect. Disord. 279, 131–142 (2021).
Damião Neto, A., Lucchetti, A. L. G., da Silva Ezequiel, O. & Lucchetti, G. Effects of a required large-group mindfulness meditation course on first-year medical students’ mental health and quality of life: a randomized controlled trial. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 35, 672–678 (2019).
Kuyken, W. et al. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of universal school-based mindfulness training compared with normal school provision in reducing risk of mental health problems and promoting well-being in adolescence: the MYRIAD cluster randomised controlled trial. Evid. Based Ment. Health 25, 99–109 (2022).
Fisher, D. J., Carpenter, J. R., Morris, T. P., Freeman, S. C. & Tierney, J. F. Meta-analytical methods to identify who benefits most from treatments: daft, deluded, or deft approach? BMJ 356, j573 (2017).
Button, K. S. et al. Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 14, 365–376 (2013).
Ma, L., Zhang, Y. & Cui, Z. Mindfulness-based interventions for prevention of depressive symptoms in university students: a meta-analytic review. Mindfulness 10, 2209–2224 (2019).
Waldron, E. M., Hong, S., Moskowitz, J. T. & Burnett-Zeigler, I. A systematic review of the demographic characteristics of participants in US-based randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based interventions. Mindfulness 9, 1671–1692 (2018).
Eichel, K. et al. A retrospective systematic review of diversity variables in mindfulness research, 2000–2016. Mindfulness 12, 2573–2592 (2021).
Frank, P. & Marken, M. Developments in qualitative mindfulness practice research: a pilot scoping review. Mindfulness 13, 17–36 (2021).
Wang, H. et al. The methodological quality of individual participant data meta-analysis on intervention effects: systematic review. BMJ 373, n736 (2021).
Tierney, J. F. et al. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: guidance on their use. PLoS Med. 12, e1001855 (2015).
Tsujimoto, Y. et al. No consistent evidence of data availability bias existed in recent individual participant data meta-analyses: a meta-epidemiological study. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 118, 107–114.e105 (2020).
Savovic, J. et al. Association between risk-of-bias assessments and results of randomized trials in Cochrane Reviews: the ROBES Meta-Epidemiologic Study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 187, 1113–1122 (2018).
Galante, J., Friedrich, C., Dalgleish, T., White, I. R. & Jones, P. B. Mindfulness-based programmes for mental health promotion in adults in non-clinical settings: protocol of an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open 12, e058976 (2022).
Shamseer, L. et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. BMJ 350, g7647 (2015).
Stewart, L. A. et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analyses of individual participant data: the PRISMA-IPD Statement. JAMA 313, 1657–1665 (2015).
Sterne, J. A. C. et al. RoB 2: a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ 366, l4898 (2019).
Covidence systematic review software (Veritas Health Innovation, 2019).
RoB2 Development Group Revised Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool for Randomized Trials (RoB 2) https://sites.google.com/site/riskofbiastool/welcome/rob-2-0-tool/current-version-of-rob-2?authuser=0 (2018).
Guyatt, G. et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ Open 336, 924–926 (2008).
Mavridis, D. & Salanti, G. A practical introduction to multivariate meta-analysis. Stat. Methods Med. Res. 22, 133–158 (2013).
McKenzie, J. E., Herbison, G. P. & Deeks, J. J. Impact of analysing continuous outcomes using final values, change scores and analysis of covariance on the performance of meta-analytic methods: a simulation study. Res. Synth. Methods 7, 371–386 (2016).
Riley, R. D., Higgins, J. P. T. & Deeks, J. J. Interpretation of random effects meta-analyses. BMJ 342, d549 (2011).
Debray, T. P. et al. Get real in individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis: a review of the methodology. Res. Synth. Methods 6, 293–309 (2015).
White, I. R., Royston, P. & Wood, A. M. Multiple imputation using chained equations: issues and guidance for practice. Stat. Med. 30, 377–399 (2011).
Riley, R. D. et al. Individual participant data meta-analysis to examine interactions between treatment effect and participant-level covariates: statistical recommendations for conduct and planning. Stat. Med. 39, 2115–2137 (2020).
Galante, J. et al. Individual Participant Data Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials Assessing Adult Mindfulness-Based Programmes for Mental Health Promotion in Non-clinical Settings – Electronic Dataset and Code https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/F9UPX (Center for Open Science, 2023).
Barrett, B. et al. Meditation or exercise for preventing acute respiratory infection: a randomized controlled trial. Ann. Fam. Med. 10, 337–346 (2012).
Barrett, B. et al. P02.36. Meditation or exercise for preventing acute respiratory infection: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1376 (2012).
Obasi, C. N. et al. Advantage of meditation over exercise in reducing cold and flu illness is related to improved function and quality of life. Influenza Other Respir. Viruses 7, 938–944 (2013).
Zgierska, A. et al. P02.57. Mindfulness meditation versus exercise in the prevention of acute respiratory infection, possible mechanisms of action: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-12-S1-P113 (2012).
Zgierska, A. et al. Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation and exercise for the prevention of acute respiratory infection: possible mechanisms of action. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2013, 1–14 (2013).
Hayney, M. S. et al. Age and psychological influences on immune responses to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in the meditation or exercise for preventing acute respiratory infection (MEPARI) trial. Hum. Vaccines Immunother. 10, 2759–2767 (2014).
Rakel, D. et al. Value associated with mindfulness meditation and moderate exercise intervention in acute respiratory infection: the MEPARI Study. Fam. Pract. 30, 390–397 (2013).
Barrett, B. et al. Meditation or exercise for preventing acute respiratory infection (MEPARI-2): a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 13, e0197778 (2018).
Maxwell, L., Barrett, B., Chase, J., Brown, R. & Ewers, T. Self-reported mental health predicts acute respiratory infection. WMJ 114, 100–104 (2015).
Hayney, M. S. et al. Serum IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) as a biomarker for severity of acute respiratory infection in healthy adults. J. Clin. Virol. 90, 32–37 (2017).
Meyer, J. D. et al. Benefits of 8-wk mindfulness-based stress reduction or aerobic training on seasonal declines in physical activity. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 50, 1850–1858 (2018).
Barrett, B. Predictors of mindfulness meditation and exercise practice, from MEPARI-2, a randomized controlled trial. Mindfulness 10, 1842–1854 (2019).
Meyer, J. D., Hayney, M. S., Coe, C. L., Ninos, C. L. & Barrett, B. P. Differential reduction of IP-10 and C-reactive protein via aerobic exercise or mindfulness-based stress-reduction training in a large randomized controlled trial. J. Sport Exerc. Psychol. 41, 96–106 (2019).
Christopher, M. S. et al. Mindfulness-based resilience training to reduce health risk, stress reactivity, and aggression among law enforcement officers: a feasibility and preliminary efficacy trial. Psychiatry Res. 264, 104–115 (2018).
Hunsinger, M., Christopher, M. & Schmidt, A. M. Mindfulness training, implicit bias, and force response decision-making. Mindfulness 10, 2555–2566 (2019).
Ribeiro, L. et al. Differential impact of mindfulness practices on aggression among law enforcement officers. Mindfulness 11, 734–745 (2020).
Errazuriz, A. et al. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on psychological distress in health workers: a three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. J. Psychiatr. Res. 145, 284–293 (2022).
Turner, L. et al. Immune dysregulation among students exposed to exam stress and its mitigation by mindfulness training: findings from an exploratory randomised trial. Sci. Rep. 10, 1–11 (2020).
Bóo, S. J. M. et al. A follow‐up study to a randomised control trial to investigate the perceived impact of mindfulness on academic performance in university students. Couns. Psychother. Res. 20, 286–301 (2019).
Galante, J. et al. Effectiveness of providing university students with a mindfulness-based intervention to increase resilience to stress: one-year follow-up of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 75, 151–160 (2020).
Huang, S. L., Li, R. H., Huang, F. Y. & Tang, F. C. The potential for mindfulness-based intervention in workplace mental health promotion: results of a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 10, e0138089 (2015).
Hwang, Y.-S. et al. Mindfulness-based intervention for educators: effects of a school-based cluster randomized controlled study. Mindfulness 10, 1417–1436 (2019).
Kral, T. R. A. et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction-related changes in posterior cingulate resting brain connectivity. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 14, 777–787 (2019).
Hirshberg, M. J., Goldberg, S. B., Rosenkranz, M. & Davidson, R. J. Prevalence of harm in mindfulness-based stress reduction. Psychol. Med. 52, 1–9 (2020).
Baird, B., Riedner, B. A., Boly, M., Davidson, R. J. & Tononi, G. Increased lucid dream frequency in long-term meditators but not following MBSR training. Psychol. Conscious. (Wash. D.C.) 6, 40–54 (2019).
Tomfohr-Madsen, L. M. et al. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for psychological distress in pregnancy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 17, 498 (2016).
Schellekens, M. P. J. et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction added to care as usual for lung cancer patients and their partners: a randomized controlled trial. J. Thorac. Oncol. 12, S1416–S1417 (2017).
Schellekens, M. P. J. et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction in addition to treatment as usual for patients with lung cancer and their partners: results of a multi-centre randomized controlled trial. Int. J. Behav. Med. 23, S231 (2016).
Siebelink, N. M. et al. Mindfulness for Children with ADHD and Mindful Parenting (MindChamp): a qualitative study on feasibility and effects. J. Atten. Disord. 25, 1931–1942 (2021).
van Dijk, I. et al. Effect of mindfulness training on the course of psychological distress and positive mental health of medical students during their clinical clerkships. A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Int. J. Behav. Med. 23, S86 (2016).